The location of this Paradise is unknown to us. The Qur’an did not reveal it, and the commentators had five different opinions.
Some said that it was the paradise of our refuge and that its place was heaven. Others negated that statement because if it was the paradise of refuge, Iblis would have been forbidden admission and disobedience would have been forbidden as well. Still others said that it was another paradise that was created by Allah for Adam and Eve. A fourth group said that it was a paradise on the earth, located in a high place. Another group of commentators accept what was in the Qur’an without questioning where this paradise was located,
We agree with this last opinion, as the lesson we learn from its location is immaterial compared to the lesson we learn from the events that took place there. Adam and Eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree, that might have been the Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them before they were given abode in Paradise: “But come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers).” Surah 2: 35
Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was, however, a human being, and man tends to forget.
His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam’s humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: “Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?” And he said to them: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): “Verily, lam one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.””. Surah 7: 20.21
Adam asked himself: “What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality.” His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise. Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then, one day, they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits, and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree. Allah Almighty told us: “”So he [Satan] misled them with deception.”” Surah 7: 22. Allah also said: “”Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray.”” Surah 20: 121
According to the Old Testament,Eve was tempted by the serpent to eat of the forbidden tree. She ate because of the words of the serpent and fed Adam some of it. At that moment, their eyes were opened to the fact that they were naked, and they took the leaves of the fig tree to cover themselves. Wahb Ibn Munabah said that their clothing (before their sin) was made of light on the private parts of both of them. This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception.
Allah the Almighty revealed: “O Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiments; to show them their private parts. Verily he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the devils (protectors and helpers) for those who believe not.”Surah 7: 27 Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he was filled with pain, sadness, and shame.
The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves. Allah the Almighty addressed him: “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (Allah) said: “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e., Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, – for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e. resurrected).”” Surah 7: 22-25
Again there are old stories about these events. Al-Hafez Ibn ‘Asaker narrated that Allah commanded two angels to remove Adam from His holy proximity. So Gabriel stripped him of the crown on his head, and Michael took the diadem from his forehead. Adam thought that his punishment had been hastened and bowed down crying: “Forgiveness! Forgiveness!”
So Allah asked: “Are you running away from Me?” Adam replied: “No, my Lord, but I am shy of You.” ‘Abdul Rahman Ibn ‘Amru Al-Awza’iy said that Adam spent one hundred years in Paradise. In another narration it was said that he spent sixty years. Ibn ‘Asaker reported that Adam wept for sixty years for his loss of Paradise and seventy years for his mistake, and he wept for another seventy years when his son was killed. They left Paradise and descended upon the earth.
Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their repentance because it was sincere, and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment. Allah the Almighty recounted this third lesson Adam learned in Paradise: “And indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm will-power. And (remember) when We said to the angels “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.”
They prostrated (all) except Iblis, who refused. Then We said: “O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed in misery. Verily, you have (a promise from Us) that you will never be hungry therein nor naked. And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.” Then Satan whispered to him, saying: “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?”
Then they both ate of the tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.
(Allah) said: “Get you down (upon the earth), both of you, together (from Paradise), some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur’an nor acts on its orders, etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.” He will say: “O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before).”
(Allah) will say: “Like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) came unto you, but you disregarded them (i.e. you left them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected (in the Hell-Fire, away from Allah’s Mercy).”
And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds [i.e. commits the great sins and disobeys his Lord (Allah) and believes not in His Messengers, and His revealed Books, like this Qur’an, etc.], and believes not in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of his Lord, and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting.” Surah 20: 115-127 Some people believe that the reason why mankind does not dwell in Paradise is that Adam was disobedient and that if it had not been for this sin, we could have been there all along.
These are naive fictions because when Almighty Allah wanted to create Adam, He said to the angels: “I shall make a vicegerant on the earth.” He did not say: “I shall make a vicegerant in Paradise.” Adam’s descent on earth, then, was not due to degradation but rather it was a dignified descent. Allah knew that Adam and Eve would eat of the tree and descend to earth. He knew that Satan would rape their innocence.
That experience was essential for their life on earth; it was a cornerstone of their vicegerency. It was meant to teach Adam, Eve, and their progeny that it was Satan who had caused them to be expelled from Paradise and that the road to Paradise can only be reached by obedience to Allah and enmity to Satan. Could it be said that Adam and the rest of mankind were predestined to sin and to be expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth? In fact, this fiction is as naive as the first one. Adam had complete free will, and he bore the consequences of his deed. He disobeyed by eating of the forbidden tree, so Allah dismissed him from Paradise. His disobedience does not negate his freedom. On the contrary, it is a consequence of it. The truth of the matter is that Allah knew what was going to happen, as He always knows the outcome of events before they take place. However, Allah does not force things to happen. He grants free will to His human creatures.
On that He bases His supreme wisdom in populating the earth, establishing the vicegerents, and so on. Adam understood his third lesson. He knew now in a practical way that Iblis was his enemy, the cause of his losing the blessing of living in Paradise, and the cause of his distress. Adam also understood that Allah punishes disobedience and that the way to Paradise has to be through submission to the will of Allah. And he learned from Almighty Allah to ask for forgiveness. Allah accepted Adam’s repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth as His first messenger.
Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “Adam and Moosaa (Moses) argued with each other. Moosaa said to Adam: ‘Your sin expelled you from Paradise.’ Adam said to him: ‘You are Moses whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?”
Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice: “ So, Adam outclassed Moosaa.” Sahih M. Bukhari.” Sahih Al-Bukhari ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab also narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:”Moosaa (PBUH) said: ‘My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?’ So Allah made him see Adam, and he said to him: ‘Are you Adam?’ Adam (PBUH) said: ‘Yes.’ And he said: ‘Were you the one in whom Allah breathed His spirit, and before whom He bowed His angels, and to whom He taught the names of all things?’ Adam answered: ‘Yes.’ So Moosaa said: ‘What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise?’ Adam said unto him: ‘Who are you?’ He said: ‘I am Mooosaa’ Adam said: ‘So you are Moosaa the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?’ Moosaa answered: ‘Yes.’ Adam said: ‘Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?”
So Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice. “Adam outclassed Moses.” Sahih Al-Bukhari There are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn ‘Abbas said: “Adam descended on land called ‘Dihna’ between Mecca (Makkah) and Taif.” Al-Hassan said that Adam descended in India, Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis in Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran).
This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Ass’ady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone in India, and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein. Ibn ‘Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al-Marwa. This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. ‘Abdul-Razzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-Sh’ari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise. Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. On this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.”
Adam knew he bade farewell to peace when he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts. Above all, he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire.
The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance should fear nothing, while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him. Adam grasped all of this, and, with the knowledge of this suffering, he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allayed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate, construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.
The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their first children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Qabil (Cain) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Habil (Abel) and his sister.
The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord.The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Qabil tilled the land, while Habil raised cattle. The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners.
This was part of Allah’s plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other.Adam instructed his children according to Allah’s command, but Qabil was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Habel’s twin-sister was not as beautiful as his own. It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between men and women. This attraction caused Qabil to envy his brother Habel. He rebelled against Allah’s command by refusing to accept his father’s advice: At first glance Qabil’s rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that,
although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he has both good and bad qualities: He can become greedy, covetous, possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore, capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self, by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practising moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter.
Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature. Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel, while Qabil offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering.
This enraged Qabil even further. Realising that his hopes of marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother: “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!” Habil, feeling sorry for his brother, replied: “It would be more proper for you, my brother, to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace.
Allah accepts deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His commands.” Habil was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother, who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Habil did not fear his brother’s threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt. Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion.
Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother, Habil said: “My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not, then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers” This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Cain’s heart, nor did he show fear of Allah’s punishment.
Even familial considerations were cast aside. Qabil struck his brother with a stone, killing him instantly. This was the first death and the first criminal act committed by man on earth. When Habil had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Qabil about Habil’s whereabouts. Qabil insolently replied that he was not his brother’s keeper nor his protector.
From these words his father understood that Habil was dead and Adam was filled with grief. Meanwhile, Qabil did not know what to do with his brother’s corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place, trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided, and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench.
As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand. Witnessing this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. “Woe unto me!” he exclaimed. “I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother’s corpse.” Cain then buried his brother. This was also the first burial of man. Allah the Almighty revealed: “And (O Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam (Habil and Qabil respectively] in truth; when each offered a sacrifice (to Allah), it was accepted from the one but not from the other.
The latter said to the former: “I will surely kill you.” The former said: ‘Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqeen (the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen (polytheists, and wrong-doers).” So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair-seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers.
Then Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: ‘Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted.” Surah 5: 27-31
Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn Mas’ud and a group of the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) related that inter-marriage of the male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice among Adam’s children. Habil wanted to marry Qabil’s sister, but Qabil wanted her for himself because she was very beautiful.
Adam ordered him to give her in marriage to his brother, but he refused. So Adam ordered both of them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca (Makkah) to perform the pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices: Abel offered a fat lamb – he was a shepherd – while Cain offered a bundle of the worst grain.
A fire descended and devoured Abel’s sacrifice, leaving that of Qabil, so he became angry and said: “I will surely kill you so that you will not marry my sister.” Habil replied: “Allah accepts from those who fear Him.” According to Abu Ja’afar Al-Baqer, Adam was watching their offering and was sure that Habil’s sacrifice would be accepted. Qabil complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for Abel and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Habil was late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Qabil to see what had happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: “Yours was accepted, and mine was not.” Habil replied: “Allah only accepts from the Allah-fearing.” Qabil became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece of iron that was with him, thus killing him. In another version it was said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping. Adam was utterly grief-stricken by the loss of his two sons: one was dead, the other was won over by the devil.
Adam prayed for his son and turned to mundane matters, for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same time, he was a prophet, advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah, and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and of how the devil had tempted Cain to kill his brother.
Years and years passed, Adam grew old, and his children spread all over the earth. Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related: that when Adam’s death drew near, he appointed his son Sheeth to be his successor, and taught him the hours of the day and night along with their appropriate acts of worship. He also foretold to him the flood that would come.
Abu Dhar narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seeth.” ‘Abdullah Ibn Al-Iman Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrated that Ubai Ibn Ka’b said: “When Adam’s death was near, he said to his children: ‘O my children, indeed, I feel an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.’ So they went away searching for what Adam had requested. They met with the angels, who had with them his shroud and what he was to be embalmed with. They said to them: ‘O Children of Adam, what are you searching for? What do you want? Where are you going?’ They said: ‘Our father is sick and has an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.’ The angels said to them: ‘Go back, for your father is going to meet his end soon.’ So they returned (with the angels), and when Eve saw them she recognised them. She tried to hide herself behind Adam. He said to her: ‘Leave me alone. I came before you; do not go between me and the angels of my Lord.’ So they took his soul, embalmed and wrapped him, dug the grave and laid him in it. They prayed on him and put him in his grave, saying: ‘O Children of Adam, this is your tradition at the time of death.” Before his death Adam reassured his children that Allah would not leave man alone on the earth, but would send His prophets to guide them.
The prophets would have different names, traits and miracles, but they would be united in one thing: the call to worship. Allah alone. This was Adam’s bequest to his children. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the angels entered his room and surrounded him: When he recognised the Angel of Death among them, his heart smiled peacefully. After Adam’s death, his son Seeth took over the responsibilities of Prophethood, according to a hadith narrated by Abu Dhar.
Abu Dhar also narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seth.” Sahih Al-Bukhari. When the time of his death came, Seeth’s son Anoush succeeded him: He in turn, was succeeded by his son Qinan, who was succeeded by his son Mahlabeel. The Persians claim that Mahlabeel was the King of the Seven Regions, that he was the first one to cut down trees to build cities and large forts and that he built the cities of Babylonia. He reigned for a period of forty years. When he died his duties were taken over by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris (PBUH) according to the majority